Gabapentin May Increase Opioid-Related Deaths

February 2, 2018 · Posted in Current Treatments, Risk Factors · Comment 

topiramateThe anticonvulsant gabapentin is sometimes prescribed for chronic pain conditions along with opioids. A 2017 article by researcher Tara Gomes in the journal PLOS Medicine reports that compared to opioid prescriptions alone, co-prescription of gabapentin increases the risk of an opioid-related death by 49%. The risk was increased by 60% for those receiving moderate or high doses of gabapentin (those above 900 mg/day).

The increased risk when the drugs are taken together may be because both gabapentin and opioids depress the respiratory system. Opioids also slow the gastrointestinal system, meaning that more gabapentin is absorbed by the intestines than occurs when gabapentin is prescribed alone.

Gomes and colleagues looked at cases of patients who were prescribed opioids and had opioid-related deaths, and matched these with similar patients who had not died while taking prescription opioids during the same time period. The researchers found that having taken gabapentin in the previous 120 days dramatically increased the risk of death from opioid-related causes.

Gomes and colleagues suggest that caution should be used when prescribing gabapentin and opioid drugs at the same time.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improve Executive Function in Youth with Mood Disorders

January 29, 2018 · Posted in Current Treatments · Comment 

omega-3 fatty acids

A 2017 study by Anthony T. Vesco and colleagues in The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry suggests that in youth with depression or bipolar not otherwise specified (BP-NOS), omega-3 fatty acid supplements improve executive functioning and behavior regulation compared to placebo.

Ninety-five participants aged 7–14 years received two capsules daily of either omega-3 fatty acids (1.87g total per day, mostly consisting of EPA) or placebo for 12 weeks. Those who received omega-3s showed improvement in executive functioning (which can include planning and decision-making), behavioral regulation, and metacognition, as rated by their parents.

Editor’s Note: Since omega-3 fatty acids have no known side effects, there is little reason not to try them in youth with depression or bipolar disorder.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improve ADHD

January 26, 2018 · Posted in Current Treatments · Comment 

sources of omega-3 fatty acidsA 2017 systematic review and meta-analysis found that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. The article by Jane Pei-Chen Chang and colleagues in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology identified seven randomized controlled trials in which omega-3 fatty acids improved clinical symptoms of ADHD, and three trials in which omega-3s improved cognitive measures associated with attention.

The meta-analysis also found that children and adolescents with ADHD have lower than normal levels of the omega-3s DHA and EPA, in addition to lower total levels of omega-3s measured in blood and cheek tissues.

Chang and colleagues suggest that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is a potentially helpful and largely risk-free treatment option for ADHD in children and adolescents.

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Can Improve PTSD

January 18, 2018 · Posted in Current Treatments · Comment 

A 2014 meta-analysis of clinical trials showed that the therapeutic technique known as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) can reduce symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The meta-analysis also established that longer durations of EMDR treatment correlated with better outcomes.

The meta-analysis by Ying-Ren Chen and colleagues in the journal PLOS One evaluated 26 randomized controlled trials of EMDR in people with PTSD. Chen and colleagues found that EMDR reduced PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and subjective distress.

EMDR is a psychotherapeutic technique intended to reduce the distress that a patient feels about a traumatic memory. The patient is encouraged to recall the traumatic event while focusing on an external stimulus. Typically this would mean using their eyes to track the therapist’s hand moving back and forth from left to right. This process can help patients reprocess the trauma and alleviate the stress that they feel upon recalling the traumatic memory.

Chen and colleagues found that EMDR sessions that lasted longer than one hour were more effective than those that lasted less than an hour. Another finding that was that groups led by therapists who were experienced in PTSD group therapy were more effective than groups led by therapists without that experience.

Other more recent research has established that traumatic memories can be reprocessed or even extinguished by making use of the memory reconsolidation window. Five minutes to one hour after a patient engages in active emotional recall of a traumatic memory, a window of time opens in which that memory is subject to reinterpretation and revision.

An experienced therapist can create a safe environment for a patient to recall traumatic events and find alternative ways of interpreting the experience—for example, by focusing on their strength in surviving the experience. This process resembles EMDR in many ways, but without the eye movements.

In a 2017 article in the journal Psychiatry Research, BNN Editor-in-Chief Robert M. Post and colleague Robert Kegan discuss the possibility of using the reconsolidation window to reprocess stressors that led to a depressive episode.

Proton Pump Inhibitors Linked to Gastric Cancer

January 16, 2018 · Posted in Current Treatments · Comment 

helicobacter pylori in the stomachProton pump inhibitors (PPIs), a type of medication used to reduce gastric acid, have been linked to gastric cancer in a new study by Ka Shing Cheung and colleagues. A 2017 article in Gut, the journal of the British Society of Gastroenterology, reports that receiving PPIs to treat stomach infections from the bacterium Helicobacter pylori increases the risk of later gastric cancer.

The study relied on a territory-wide health database in Hong Kong. Out of 63,397 subjects, 153 developed gastric cancer after being treated for Helicobacter pylori. PPI treatment was associated with a 2.4-fold increase in risk of gastric cancer, while treatment with histamine-2 receptor agonist drugs did not increase cancer risk.

Editor’s Note: PPIs are widely used in psychiatric patients. Care should be taken with their long-term use.

An Inflammatory State Impedes Treatment for Bipolar Disorder

January 4, 2018 · Posted in Current Treatments · Comment 

A 2017 study by in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry links inflammation to a poor antidepressant response in bipolar disorder. Many previous studies have found that elevated inflammatory markers are common in mood disorders, and that an inflammatory state seems to prevent response to certain therapies.

Researcher Francesco Benedetti and colleagues report that high levels of inflammatory cytokines (a type of small proteins) predicted a worse response to treatment with sleep deprivation and light therapy for bipolar depression. This treatment typically brings about a rapid antidepressant response.

Benedetti and colleagues measured 15 immune-regulating compounds in 37 patients who were experiencing an episode of bipolar depression and 24 healthy volunteers. Among those participants with bipolar disorder, 84% had a history of non-response to medication. Twenty-three of the 37 patients, or 62%, responded to the sleep deprivation/light therapy combination. Those who did not had higher levels of five cytokines: interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-gamma, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

Body mass index was correlated with cytokine levels and also reduced response to the treatment.

The finding supports a link between the immune system and mood disorders. Evaluating a patient’s level of inflammation may, in the future, allow doctors to predict the patient’s response to a given therapy. Patients with high levels of inflammation might benefit most from treatments that target their immune system.

FDA Approves New Higher Dose of Valbenazine for Tardive Dyskinesia

December 15, 2017 · Posted in Current Treatments · Comment 

tardive dyskinesia

The US Food and Drug Administration has approved an 80 mg capsule dose of valbenazine (Ingrezza) for tardive dyskinesia (jerky, involuntary movements of the face, especially the mouth and tongue, fingers and body that can be a side effect of antipsychotic medication). Valbenazine, a selective vesicular monoamine transporter 2 inhibitor, was the first drug FDA-approved for tardive dyskinesia. The FDA initially approved a dosage of 40 mg/day in April 2017. The 80 mg/day dose was approved in October 2017.

The new approval was based on a 6-week clinical trial in which 80 mg of valbenazine improved tardive dyskinesia significantly compared to placebo. Improvement continued over 48 weeks of treatment.

Taking SSRI Antidepressants May Increase Stroke Risk

December 6, 2017 · Posted in Current Treatments · Comment 

pill bottleA Taiwanese study published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry in 2017 finds that taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants can increase risk of stroke. The study by Chin-Hong Chan and colleagues analyzed eight years of data from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, comparing people who had taken SSRIs for at least two consecutive months to those who had not. First onset strokes were more common among people who had taken SSRIs, and the higher stroke rates in this group persisted for three years after exposure.

Ischemic strokes (which occur when a blood vessel carrying blood to the brain is obstructed) were more common than hemorrhagic strokes (which occur when a weak blood vessel ruptures). Younger adult participants exposed to SSRIs were more likely to have strokes, while people older than 65 saw only a slight increase in stroke risk from taking SSRIs. More strokes occurred during the first three years of SSRI treatment than later in treatment.

Chan and colleagues suggest that these strokes are caused by cerebral microbleeding or by overcorrection of hemostasis, the process by which the body slows or stops bleeding by constricting blood vessels and coagulating blood.

Best Antidepressants for Post-Stroke Depression

December 4, 2017 · Posted in Current Treatments · Comment 

strokeA recent meta-analysis in the journal BMJ Open analyzes the efficacy and tolerability of 10 different antidepressants given to treat depression following a stroke. The meta-analysis incorporated data from 12 trials and a total of 707 participants. Reboxetine was the most effective antidepressant, followed by paroxetine, doxepin, and duloxetine. Sertraline, fluoxetine, and nefiracetam failed to outperform placebo in the treatment of post-stroke depression.

In terms of tolerability, paroxetine had the least side effects and led to significantly fewer discontinuations than doxepin, citalopram, and fluoxetine. After paroxetine, the most tolerable drugs were sertraline and nortriptyline. The least tolerable drug was citalopram.
Researchers led by Yefei Sun suggested that paroxetine might be the best antidepressant to prescribe after a stroke due to its efficacy and good tolerability. Fluoxetine might be the worst due to its poor efficacy and poor side effects profile.

Editor’s Note: Multiple randomized controlled trials suggest that antidepressants can be helpful for anyone who has a stroke, both to decrease depression and to improve neurological and functional outcomes.  

Vagus Nerve Stimulation Improves Depression When Other Treatments Fail

November 24, 2017 · Posted in Current Treatments · Comment 

VNSVagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as an adjunctive therapy for treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression since 2005. The treatment consists of a pacemaker-like device implanted under the skin in the chest that delivers regular, mild electrical pulses to the brain via the left vagus nerve.

A 2017 study by Scott T. Aaronson and colleagues in the American Journal of Psychiatry reports that over a 5-year period, people with treatment-resistant depression who received VNS did better than those who received treatment as usual. The 795 participants at 61 US sites had either a depressive episode that had lasted for at least two years or had had three or more depressive episodes and had failed to respond to at least four treatments, including electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Over five years, those who received VNS had higher response rates (67.6% versus 40.9%) and higher remission rates (43.3% versus 25.7%) compared to those who received treatment as usual.

While the study by Aaronson and colleagues was non-blind and non-randomized, it suggests that VNS could be helpful in the long-term management of treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression.

Editor’s Note: VNS was FDA-approved for treatment-resistant seizures in patients aged 12 and older in 1997 and for children 4 years and older in 2017. It was also approved for cluster headaches in 2017. Insurance coverage and reimbursement for VNS is typically available for these neurological conditions, but not for the treatment of depression. This is an unfortunate example of the stigmatization of psychiatric illness—when an FDA-approved device can be kept from people in need of treatment.

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