At a symposium on early-onset depression at the 2013 meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Betsy Kennard described a course of cognitive behavioral therapy tailored to eliminating residual symptoms in children with unipolar depression who had no family history of a parent with bipolar disorder. In the same study Graham Emslie discussed, the investigators considered cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of childhood- and adolescent-onset depression.
The therapy was aimed at achieving health and wellbeing and focusing on positive attributes and strengths in the child, and it was designed to be a shorter than usual course (i.e. four weekly sessions, then four every other week, and one at three months). This regimen typically also included three to five family sessions. Other key components of the therapy included anticipating and dealing with stressors, setting goals, and practicing all the skills learned.
On a visual timeline, children identified and wrote down past stressors, how they felt when depressed, their automatic cognitions, ways they would know when they were feeling down again (i.e. feeling isolated, angry at parents, etc.), their strengths and skills, what obstacles to feeling better existed and how to circumvent them, and their long-term goals.
The therapy was based on the research of Martin Seligman and Giovanni A. Fava, plus Rye’s Six S’s (soothing, self-healing, social, success, spiritual, and self-acceptance). The children participated in practice and skill-building in each domain. Sleep hygiene and exercise were emphasized. The idea of “making it stick” was made concrete with phrases on sticky notes taken home and put up on a mirror. Postcards were even sent between sessions as reminders and for encouragement.
Editor’s Note: Most depressed kids don’t get completely well (only about 20% after an acute course of medication). Something must be added. This kind of specialized cognitive behavior therapy works and keeps patients from relapsing. This study included only those children with unipolar depression whose parents did not have bipolar disorder. However, Emslie noted that depressed children of a bipolar parent also had an exceedingly low rate of switching into mania (2 to 4%) in his experience, so fluoxetine followed by cognitive behavioral therapy might be considered for treating unipolar depressed children of a bipolar parent.
Once children have developed bipolar disorder, evidenced by hypomania or mania followed by depression, antidepressants are to be avoided in favor of mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics, since there is a higher switch rate in these youth when they are prescribed antidepressant monotherapy.
Since children with bipolar disorder are at such high risk for continued symptoms and relapses, the strategy of adding cognitive behavioral therapy to their successful drug treatment would appear appropriate for them as well as those with unipolar depression, especially since there is a large positive literature on the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy, psychoeducation, and Family Focused Therapy (FFT) in children and adults with bipolar depression. As noted previously, FFT is very effective for children at high risk because of a parent with bipolar disorder and who are already symptomatic with anxiety, depression or BP-NOS.
Moral of the story: getting kids with unipolar or bipolar depression well and keeping them well is a difficult endeavor that requires specialized, combined medication and therapy approaches and follow-up education and therapy. This is for sure. The hope would also be that good early and long-term intervention would yield a more benign course of recurrent unipolar or bipolar disorder than would treatment as usual (which all too often consists of medication only).
At a symposium on early-onset depression at the 2013 meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Graham Emslie of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center discussed the role of cognitive behavioral therapy in the long-term treatment of child-and adolescent-onset unipolar depression.
In Emslie’s research, the combination of the antidepressant fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy reduced depressive relapses in children. Using the two treatments together did not speed onset of antidepressant response compared to fluoxetine alone, but once children responded to the medication, the addition of cognitive behavioral therapy reduced relapses over the next year compared to fluoxetine alone (even though the cognitive behavioral therapy ended after the first six months).
Emslie likened the use of cognitive behavioral therapy to the course of rehabilitation that often follows a major surgery and is meant to sustain or enhance the good effects of surgery. Getting patients to full remission (well and with no residual symptoms) was the key to staying well.
At the 2013 meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vilma Gabbay of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine reiterated the findings from the TORDIA (Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents) study that 20% of young people with depression remained resistant to treatment, childhood-onset depression was more likely to be recurrent and more difficult than adult-onset depression in the long run, and suicide was the second leading cause of death in 12- to 17-year-olds in 2010 according to a Centers for Disease Control report in May 2013. Anhedonia (a loss of pleasure in activities once enjoyed) was the most difficult symptom to treat in adolescents.
Gabbay carefully explained some of the rationales for using ketamine in young people with depression. The presence of inflammation is a poor prognosis factor, and ketamine has anti-inflammatory effects, decreasing levels of inflammatory markers CRP, TNF-alpha, and Il-6.Given that ketamine has been widely used as an anesthetic for surgical procedures, its safety in children has already been demonstrated. Ketamine did not appear to cause behavioral sensitization (that is, increased effect upon repetition) in a report by Cho et al. in 2005 that included 295 patients.
As noted previously, Papolos et al. reported in a 2012 article in the Journal of Affective Disorders that intranasal ketamine at doses of 50 to 120 mg was well-tolerated and had positive clinical effects in 6- to 19-year-olds with the fear of harm subtype of bipolar disorder that had been highly resistant to treatment with more conventional drugs.
Gabbay reluctantly endorsed further cautious controlled trials in children and adolescents, in light of ketamine’s suggested efficacy and good safety profile, which stands in contrast to its popular reputation as a party drug or “Special K.”
Editor’s Note: The discussant of the symposium, Neal Ryan of Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, added an exquisitely brief discussion suggesting that ketamine should ultimately be studied in combination with behavioral and psychotherapeutic procedures to see if its therapeutic effects could be enhanced. He made this suggestion based on the data that ketamine has important synaptic effects, increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is important for healthy cells and long-term memory, and reverting thin dendritic spines caused by stress back to their normal mushroom shape. This editor (Robert Post) could not be more in agreement.
At a symposium on ketamine for the treatment of depression in children at the 2013 meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, David Brent, a professor at the University of Pittsburg, gave the opening talk on the fact that as many as 20% of adolescents who are depressed fail to improve, develop chronic illness, and are thus in need of alternatives to traditional treatment. Predictors of non-improvement include substance use, low-level manic symptoms, poor adherence to a medication regimen, low blood levels of antidepressants, family conflict, high levels of inflammation in the body, and importantly, maternal depression. In adolescents insomnia was associated with poor response, but in younger children insomnia was associated with a better response.
Brent suggested using melatonin and sleep-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in youth, but not using trazodone (which is commonly prescribed). Trazodone is converted to a compound called Meta-chlorophenylpiperazine or MCPP, which induces anxiety and dysphoria. MCPP is metabolized by hepatic enzymes 2D6, and fluoxetine and paroxetine inhibit 2D6, so if trazodone is combined with these antidepressants, the patient may get too much MCPP.
Surprisingly and contrary to some data in adults about the positive effects of therapy in those with abuse histories, in the study TORDIA (Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents), if youth with depression had experienced abuse in childhood, they did less well on the combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) compared to SSRIs alone.
At a symposium celebrating the retirement of Willem Nolen, a researcher who spent 40 years studying unipolar and bipolar disorder, from his position at Groningen Hospital in the Netherlands, his colleague Jules Angst discussed some recent findings. Angst is perhaps the world’s leading authority on the long-term course of unipolar and bipolar disorders based on his multiple prospective follow-up studies, some lasting 20-30 years.
The Sensitization-Kindling Model
Angst described evidence that supports the sensitization-kindling model of recurrent mood disorders, which this editor (Robert Post) described in 1992. Episodes tend to recur faster over time, i.e. the well interval between episodes becomes progressively shorter. While stressors often precipitate initial episodes, after multiple occurrences, episodes also begin to occur spontaneously (in the absence of apparent stressors).
This type of progressive increase in response to repetition of the same stimulus was most clearly seen in animal studies, where repeated daily electrical stimulation of the amygdala eventually produced major motor seizures (i.e. amygdala kindling). Daily electrical stimulation of rodents’ amygdala for one second initially produced no behavioral change, but eventually, minor and then full-blown seizures emerged. Once enough of the stimulated full-blown amygdala-kindled seizures had occurred, seizures began to occur spontaneously (i.e. in the absence of the triggering stimulation).
The analogy to human mood disorders is indirect, but kindling provides a model not only for how repeated triggers eventually result in full-blown depressive episodes, but also for how these triggered depressive episodes may eventually occur spontaneously as well.
Long-Term Treatment of Mood Disorders
Angst also discussed long-term treatment of mood disorders. He has found that long-term lithium treatment not only reduces suicides in patients with bipolar disorder, but also reduces the medical mortality that accompanies bipolar disorder.
Angst noted his previous surprising observations that in unipolar disorder, long-term maintenance treatment, even with low doses of tricyclic antidepressants, prevents suicide. Previously, researchers Ellen Frank and David Kupfer of Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center had found that when patients with recurrent unipolar depression who had been stable for 5 years on the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline were blindly switched to half their original dose, about 90% rapidly relapsed into a new episode of depression. Their data helped establish the prevailing view that maintenance treatment with the full-dose regimen required to achieve a good initial acute response is also the optimal approach to long-term continuation and prophylactic treatment.
Angst found good results even at low doses, but his data may not be in conflict with Frank and Kupfer’s, as a person who responds well acutely to low doses may also be able to maintain good enough response to them to prevent recurrences in the long term.
Incidence of Bipolar Disorder in Adolescents Similar to Incidence in Adults
Angst also presented data from the Adolescent Supplement to the National Comorbidity Study (NCS-A), which analyzed interviews with approximately 10,000 adolescents (aged 13-17) in the US. He found a 7.6% incidence of major depression, a 2.5% incidence of bipolar I or II disorder, and a 1.7% incidence of mania. There was an even higher incidence of sub-threshold bipolar disorder, when there are not enough symptoms or a long enough duration of symptomatology to meet diagnostic criteria for bipolar I or II disorder. These data published by Merikangas et al. in 2009 provide clear epidemiological data that there is a substantial incidence of bipolar disorder in adolescents in the US, roughly similar to that seen in adults.
At a symposium celebrating the retirement of Willem Nolen, a researcher who spent 40 years studying unipolar and bipolar disorder, from his position at Groningen Hospital in the Netherlands, this editor (Robert Post) discussed progress in the treatment of bipolar disorder over the past 40 years. Despite the availability of lithium; many new mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, valproate, lamotrigine); and many atypical antipsychotics, all of which are anti-manic and some of which are antidepressant (quetiapine and lurasidone), there is still a very high rate of continued illness and treatment resistance, especially in the US.
In fact, research from the Bipolar Collaborative Network, a treatment research network including sites around the US (one run by this editor) and in Germany and the Netherlands, shows that almost everything about bipolar disorder is worse in the US. Americans have more genetic vulnerability because more of their parents have bipolar disorder, and they are more likely to have environmental vulnerability as a result of childhood adversity. Patients in the US also reported having had more stressors at the onset of their illness and more stressors prior to the last episode they had before entering the network at an average age of 40.
Age at illness onset is much lower in the US than in the Netherlands and Germany. About two-thirds of American patients had onset in childhood or adolescence (under 19 years), while only about one-third of the European patients in this study showed these early onsets.
The course of illness is also more difficult in the US. There is more anxiety, substance abuse, and medical comorbidity, and there are more episodes and more rapid cycling. All this resulted in more US patients than European ones who did not respond to naturalistic treatment in our treatment network despite being prescribed multiple medications.
The implication of these data is that we need a new and more concerted approach to bipolar disorder in the US, beginning with early diagnosis and treatment during childhood and adolescence, instead of the 10- to 15-year average delay that was typical about twenty years ago. The duration of the delay to first treatment with a drug to treat mania or depression was an independent predictor of a worse outcome in adulthood. Early intervention should also include therapy and education.
Family-Focused Treatment (FFT), a method pioneered by researchers David Miklowitz and Kiki Chang, has been shown to be much more effective than treatment as usual in children who are at high risk for developing bipolar disorder because they have a family history of the illness and symptoms of an anxiety or depressive disorder or bipolar not otherwise specified (BP-NOS). In this way it may even be possible to head off the full-blown illness before it starts in those children at highest risk.
In adults with bipolar disorder, adversity in childhood has been associated with an earlier onset of bipolar disorder compared to those who did not experience some form of adversity such as verbal abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, loss of a parent, abandonment, or neglect. At the 2013 meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, Nancy Low et al. reported that the number of these stressful life events a child experienced was associated with the number of their anxiety symptoms, psychiatric disorders, and lifetime substance abuse. Having experienced 3 or more adversities was associated with a 3.5-fold increased risk for developing a mood disorder and a 3-fold increase in anxiety disorders and alcohol or drug abuse.
While the study has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed journal, the abstract (#194) may be found in the meeting supplement, Volume 73, Number 9S of the journal Biological Psychiatry.
Editor’s Note: Low’s study is the first to report that childhood adversity is a risk factor for the onset of bipolar disorder in the general population.
Given the increasing evidence for the persistence of epigenetic marks on DNA and histones (which can’t change the sequence of genes but can change their structure) in those who have experienced such stressors in childhood, this could provide a mechanism for the long-term vulnerability of these children to the development of mood disorders and a variety of physical illnesses.
Depression in a parent is one of the factors that best predicts whether a young person will develop depression. Since depression symptoms can vary greatly from person to person and some symptoms are known to be more heritable than others, new research is investigating whether a parent’s profile of symptoms affects their child’s likelihood of developing the illness. A 2013 study by Mars et al. in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry suggests that loss of appetite or weight in a parent with depression is the symptom that most strongly predicts new onset of depression and depressive symptoms in their offspring.
The study observed 337 parent-child pairs. The parents (mostly mothers), who had a history of recurrent unipolar depression, ranged in age from 25–55 years, and their children ranged from 9–17 years. The study lasted four years, during which the families participated in three assessments. Parents’ symptoms were recorded and children were also assessed for symptoms or new development of depression. Thirty percent of the offspring whose parents reported weight loss or low appetite were found to have new onset of depression at followup, compared to nine percent of the offspring whose parents did not have these symptoms.
There are nine symptoms used to diagnose depression in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders: low mood, loss of interest (anhedonia), loss of energy, change in appetite or weight, change in sleep, low self-esteem or guilt, suicidality, psychomotor slowing (retardation), and loss of concentration or indecisiveness. Of these, parental loss of appetite or weight was the only symptom that predicted depression in a child. Interestingly, the severity of parental depression or the presence of other health problems in the parent did not account for the emergence of illness in the children.
- Support Pregnant Women with Bipolar Disorder
A. Depression during pregnancy is more common among women with bipolar disorder than among controls–consider cognitive behavioral therapy, omega-3 fatty acids, folate, & rTMS
B. 52% incidence of post-partum depression (3x higher than controls)–Monitor closely and treat accordingly
- Ask Your Affectively Ill Patients About Their Children
- Encourage Good Diet and Exercise in These Children
- Encourage Watchful Waiting in Families with Children at High Risk
- If a Child becomes Symptomatic, Suggest:
A. Family Focused Therapy (FFT), or other Family-Based Treatment
B. Low-Risk Interventions Like Nutrition and Sleep Hygiene
- If a Child Develops BP-NOS, Encourage:
A. Mainstream Pharmacotherapy
B. Increased Social Support (Family, Friends, Advocacy)
- If a Child Develops BP-I, Encourage Ongoing Monitoring & Medication
- If an Adolescent Becomes Manic, Educate About Substance Abuse and Attempt Primary Prevention of a Substance Abuse Disorder
Our editor Robert M. Post recommends that in the absence of good care in the community for children at high risk for bipolar disorder because a parent has the disorder, adult psychiatrists of parents with bipolar disorder who have children with the disorder should fill this gap by treating the children themselves. If the child has only early symptoms, family focused therapy as developed by David Miklowitz would be recommended.
Here are some other suggestions in addition to family focused therapy:
- Good Diet, Exercise, Sleep Hygiene
- Omega-3 Fatty Acids
- Check Vitamin D3 levels and Add Supplement if Needed
- Melatonin for Insomnia
- N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for Irritability (as in studies of children with autism spectrum disorders)
- Folate for Depression and/or Elevated Homocysteine
- Check for Evidence of Inflammation (Increased IL-6 or CRP)
Options with Some Side Effects:
- Minocycline (an anti-inflammatory neuroprotective antibiotic)