Maternal Warmth Does Not Negate Corporal Punishment

May 6, 2015 · Posted in Risk Factors · Comment 

corporal punishment

New research shows that expressions of maternal warmth following corporal punishment do not reduce children’s anxiety, and may even increase it.

The study by Jennifer E. Lansford and colleagues was published in the Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. The researchers interviewed over a thousand children aged 7–10 and their mothers about what type of physical punishment occurs in their family, and about anxiety and aggression in the children. They followed up again after one and two years. The study took place in eight countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States.

In general, corporal punishment increased anxiety in the children, while maternal warmth decreased it. How warmth and physical punishment interacted depended on the country. Anxiety increased over time in families where the mothers were high on both corporal punishment and warmth. Lansford and colleagues wrote that it might be “simply too confusing and unnerving for a child to be hit hard and loved warmly all in the same home.”

The researchers suggest that parents use nonphysical ways to promote desirable behavior in their children, including putting younger children in time-out and requiring teenagers to participate in activities that help others.

Worsening Comorbidities Relate To Adverse Bipolar Outcomes

December 18, 2013 · Posted in Course of Illness · Comment 

anxious teenMany children with bipolar disorder also present with other comorbid Axis I psychiatric illnesses. Now it seems that the worsening of these comorbidities, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or an anxiety disorder, can signal a more difficult course of bipolar illness itself. At a symposium on the course of bipolar disorder in children at the 2013 meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), Shirley Yen from Brown University discussed findings on comorbidities of childhood onset bipolar disorder from COBY, the Collaborative Child Bipolar Network. Upon study entry, 60% of children with bipolar disorder also had ADHD, 40% had oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), 39% had an anxiety disorder, 12.5% had both oppositional defiant disorder and a conduct disorder, and 9% had a substance abuse disorder.

The prevalence of most of these comorbid illnesses increased over time (e.g. anxiety disorder rates increased from 39% to 62%). The illnesses were also related to the time it took participants to achieve recovery (eight consecutive weeks well), and the time until a recurrence of a depressive or manic episode.

Increases in anxiety were linked to longer time to achieve recovery and a shorter time to a recurrence. Increases in ADHD were linked to a more rapid onset of a depressive recurrence. Increases in oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder had no relationship with either remission or recurrence. Increases in substance abuse disorders were linked to a longer time to recover from a manic episode. Thus, worsening of the comorbid conditions had definite consequences for both recovery and recurrence.

Harsh Physical Punishment is Associated with Mood and Other Disorders

April 11, 2013 · Posted in Risk Factors · Comment 

physical punishment

Physical punishment of children has long been a controversial subject. A 2012 article by Afifi et al. in the journal Pediatrics suggests that having experienced harsh physical punishment during childhood is associated with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse and dependence, and personality disorders in adulthood.

In this study harsh physical punishment included pushing, grabbing, shoving, slapping, or hitting. Participants who had experienced more severe maltreatment in childhood (including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, and exposure to violence between intimate partners) were excluded from the study, and the results were adjusted for sociodemographic variables and family history of dysfunction, suggesting that physical punishment was the mediator of these effects.