A new study suggests that for people with bipolar depression, the anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib (Celebrex), typically used to treat arthritis, can boost the effectiveness of the antidepressant escitalopram (Lexapro).
In the 8-week study by researcher Angelos Halaris and colleagues, adults with bipolar depression were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The first group received the selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant escitalopram plus celecoxib to target inflammation. The second group received just the antidepressant escitalopram and a placebo.
By the end of the study, 78% of the group taking the anti-arthritis drug had seen major improvement in their depression, with 63% reporting that it had lifted completely. Meanwhile in the placebo group, only 45% reported major improvement, and 10% reported remission.
The group that received celecoxib with their escitalopram also began seeing improvement within one week of beginning treatment, instead of after four to six weeks, which is typical of antidepressant treatment.
Researchers think depression creates an immune response leading to chronic inflammation, which can upset the balance of neurotransmitters in the brain and make antidepressants less effective. Halaris suggests that reducing this inflammation with a drug like celecoxib can make antidepressants more effective.
The research was presented at the Fifth International Congress on Psychiatry and the Neurosciences and has not yet been published.
A study currently in progress indicates that the anti-inflammatory COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (better known as the arthritis treatment Celebrex) may aid in the treatment of bipolar depression. In a panel session on inflammation at the 2015 meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, researcher Angelos Halaris reported results from the first 26 participants.
Participants were taking mood stabilizers for bipolar disorder and became depressed. They received either 20mg/day of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant escitalopram (Lexapro) plus either 200mg twice a day of celecoxib or placebo for a total of eight weeks. Those participants who received celecoxib showed greater and more rapid reductions in depression symptoms than those who received placebo.
The study will continue, and Halaris and colleagues will also observe whether measures of inflammation in patients’ blood are correlated with the patients’ responsiveness to the combined treatment with escitalopram and celecoxib.
Research has previously shown a link between stress, inflammation, and mood diorders. Anti-inflammatory treatments are now being explored for depression. In an abstract presented at the 2013 meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, Nadia Alvi et al. reported that the commonly used anti-inflammatory COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex) showed better antidepressant effects than placebo when added to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant escitalopram (Lexapro) in an 8-week study.
While this research has not yet been peer-reviewed, it can be found in the 2013 convention supplement (9S) to the journal Biological Psychiatry as abstract #661.
Editor’s Note: These data are consistent with an emerging literature that shows there are increases in signs of inflammation in both unipolar and bipolar depression. It remains to be determined whether those patients whose blood shows markers of inflammation (such as increases in C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukins 1 and 6, and TNF-alpha) are more likely to respond to anti-inflammatory treatment than patients in general.