There is mounting evidence that inflammation and metabolic problems are related to depression. A recent study by Vogelzangs et al. in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology examined 313 patients being treated for depression to see whether levels of inflammatory markers in the blood and metabolic factors such as cholesterol, blood pressure, and waist circumference predicted whether those patients would still (or again) be diagnosable with depression two years later.
Several factors predicted later depression, including high levels of the inflammatory marker interleukin-6, low HDL (“good”) cholesterol, higher than normal triglycerides, and high blood glucose (hyperglycemia).
People who had four or more types of inflammatory or metabolic abnormalities had almost twice the odds of having chronic depression. Among those study participants who had only recently begun taking antidepressant medication, having four or more of these risk factors made them almost 7 times more likely to be depressed during follow-up.
One explanation for the connection between inflammatory and metabolic dysregulation and depression is that inflammation and metabolic problems worsen and complicate a patient’s depression and reduce the patient’s responsiveness to traditional antidepressants. Alternative ways of treating these patients aimed at their inflammation and metabolism may be necessary.
Research has shown a link between inflammation and mental illness. Inflammation leads to a series of chemical changes that can overexcite neurons and interfere with the protection of neurons.
Inflammation increases the production of indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that breaks down the amino acid tryptophan into kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid. They in turn increase glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter, and decrease brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which keeps neurons healthy.
Kynurenic acid stimulates microglia, which clean up the central nervous system as a form of immune defense, to produce inflammatory cytokine proteins.
Quinolinic acid directly stimulates glutamate receptors and encourages glutamate release from astrocytes. Quinolinic acid also blocks glutamate removal that would normally occur through reuptake into the astrocytes, leading to more stimulation of extrasynaptic glutamate receptors and decreases in BDNF.
Quinolinic acid’s effects are opposite to those of the antidepressant ketamine, which blocks glutamate NMDA receptors and increases BDNF. When people are given interferon protein for the treatment of cancers, quinolinic acid increases in cerebrospinal fluid, inducing depression. The severity of depression induced is correlated with the patient’s levels of quinolinic acid.
It appears that ketamine has indirect anti-inflammatory effects through its ability to block glutamate receptors and increase BDNF.