Successful Trial of N-Acetylcysteine for Veterans with PTSD and Substance Abuse

October 18, 2017 · Posted in Potential Treatments · Comment 

The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can improve a number of habit-related conditions, such as substance use disorders, gambling, and compulsive hair-pulling. It also aids in the treatment of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A 2016 study by Susie E. Back and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry found that NAC can also improve symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in veterans who also had substance use disorders.

In the pilot study of 35 veterans, participants were randomized to receive an 8-week course of NAC (2,400 mg/day) or placebo, plus cognitive-behavioral therapy targeting their substance use disorder. PTSD and substance use disorders have some overlapping neurobiological features, such as impaired prefrontal cortex regulation of basal ganglia circuitry.

At the end of the 8-week trial, those veterans who received NAC showed improvement in PTSD symptoms, substance cravings, and depression compared to those who received placebo. Substance use was similar and low among both groups. Side effects were minimal.
While these results were preliminary, they suggest that NAC could treat both PTSD and substance use disorders, which often occur together. Larger studies are expected to follow.

Editor’s Note: These preliminary data add to the evidence that NAC has remarkably wide utility in addictions (cocaine, alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana), habits (including OCD, trichotillomania/hair-pulling, nail biting, skin-picking, and cutting), depression and anxiety in bipolar disorder and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

NAC Reduces Alcohol Cravings, If Not Use

May 23, 2016 · Posted in Potential Treatments · Comment 

alcohol dependence

The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been found to reduce many types of habitual behavior, from gambling to drug use to compulsive hair-pulling. A recent study by researcher Gihyun Yoon and colleagues, which was presented at a 2015 scientific meeting, found that while NAC and placebo reduced days of heavy drinking by about the same rates, NAC significantly reduced alcohol cravings and quality of life compared to placebo among participants with alcohol dependence.

In the 8-week study, 44 participants aged 18–65 received either 3600mg/day of NAC or a placebo. This dose of NAC was higher than the 600mg–2400mg doses that have typically been used in research settings, and there were few side effects, confirming that NAC is a safe treatment.

The authors are not sure how NAC produces this effect, but it may be by regulating the neurotransmitter glutamate.

Medications that Regulate Glutamate Transporters Can Reduce Cocaine Craving

May 20, 2016 · Posted in Potential Treatments · Comment 

glia

Glia are brain cells that surround neurons and synapses, protecting and insulating them. Chronic cocaine use and withdrawal changes the way certain glial cells, called astrocytes, interact with neurons. In particular, chronic cocaine use and withdrawal can shrink astrocytes and cause them to pull away from neurons. Cocaine use and withdrawal also interfere with the way the neurotransmitter glutamate is cleared from synapses and transported into astrocytes.

New research shows that certain medications that regulate and increase the movement of glutamate from the synapse into glial cells can reduce cravings for cocaine.

In studies of rats chronically exposed to cocaine and then denied access to it, treatment with these glutamate-targeting medications reduces the rats’ cocaine-seeking behaviors. The medications include N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant that can reduce habitual behaviors, including addictive behaviors; riluzole, a treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease; the antibiotic ceftriaxone; and propentofylline, which has been explored as a possible treatment for dementia and stroke.

Nutritional Supplement NAC Reduces Skin-Picking

May 18, 2016 · Posted in Potential Treatments · Comment 

NAC can reduce skin picking

The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been found to be an effective treatment for a variety of habit-based behaviors—substance abuse, including cocaine, alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine; gambling; obsessive-compulsive behaviors; trichotillomania (compulsive hair-pulling), and repetitive behaviors among people with autism. Recent research by researcher Jon Grant and colleagues revealed that NAC can also treat skin-picking disorder.

At a 2015 scientific meeting, Grant reported that 1200–3000mg of NAC per day led to improvement in 47.1% of patients with a skin-picking disorder, compared to 19.2% improvement in patients who received placebo.

In addition to its positive effects in people with addictions and habit-based behaviors, NAC has also improved mood and anxiety in bipolar disorder and treated negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as withdrawal and lack of motivation.

Editor’s Note: Given NAC’s effectiveness in such a wide range of disorders and behaviors, it could be a particularly useful treatment for people with major psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, with co-occurring substance abuse.

Antioxidant NAC Improves Symptoms of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

January 22, 2016 · Posted in Current Treatments · Comment 

NAC for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant available without a prescription in health food stores, has shown remarkable effectiveness when added to regular treatments for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and the substance abuse that often accompanies these illnesses.

A 2008 article by Michael Berk and colleagues in the journal Biological Psychiatry reported that compared to placebo, 2 grams/day of NAC reduced both positive symptoms of schizophrenia (hallucinations, delusions) and negative symptoms (social withdrawal, difficulty planning and problem-solving). A 2013 study by Mehdi Farokhnia found that 2 grams/day of NAC improved negative symptoms in 42 patients with schizophrenia. Two other studies found that NAC improved deficits in auditory sensory processing in people with schizophrenia.

NAC also improves symptoms of bipolar disorder. A 2008 study by Berk and a 2011 study by Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães showed that NAC improved bipolar depression, and a small 2013 study by Magalhães showed that it improved mania in 15 patients. After 24 weeks, 60% of those who took NAC were in remission, compared to 15% of those taking placebo.

NAC is also effective at reducing habitual behaviors such as substance abuse, which is common in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Studies have shown that NAC can reduce patients’ use of marijuana, cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. It is relatively safe with minimal side effects, and fights oxidative stress, which is also common in severe mental illness.

NAC comes in 500mg or 600mg capsules. Dosing typically begins with one capsule twice a day for a week, followed by two tablets twice a day thereafter. As with any recommendations in the BNN, these should not be acted on without guidance from a treating physician.

N-acetylcysteine Reduces Self-Harm, Restores Amygdala Connectivity in Young Women

November 6, 2015 · Posted in Current Treatments · Comment 

N-acetylcysteine reduces self-harmN-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an anti-oxidant nutritional supplement that has been found to reduce a wide range of habitual behaviors, including drug and alcohol use, smoking, trichotillomania (compulsive hair-pulling), and gambling. It also improves depression, anxiety, and obsessive behaviors in adults, as well as irritability and repeated movements in children with autism. A new study suggests NAC may also be able to reduce non-suicidal self-injury, often thought of as “cutting,” in girls aged 13–21.

The open study, presented in a poster by researcher Kathryn Cullen at the 2015 meeting of the Society for Biological Psychiatry, compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 15 healthy adolescent girls to scans of 22 girls who had been engaging in self-injury, both before and after this latter group received eight weeks of treatment with N-acetylcysteine. Doses were 1200 mg/day for the first two weeks, 2400mg/day for the next two weeks, and 3600mg/day for the final four weeks. The girls also reported their self-injury behaviors.

Treatment with NAC reduced the girls’ self-injury behaviors. The brain scans showed that NAC also increased resting-state functional connectivity between the amygdala and the insula. Connectivity in this region helps people regulate their emotional responses. At baseline, the girls who engaged in self-harm had had deficient connectivity between the amygdala, the prefrontal cortex, insula, and the posterior cingulate cortices compared to the healthy girls, and this improved with the NAC treatment.