TDCS Can Change Sleep Duration

October 7, 2016 · Posted in Theory · Comment 

sleep duration

A German study published in 2016 suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can affect the duration of a person’s nightly sleep. Lukas Frase and colleagues compared the effects of two different tDCS parameters and a sham stimulation on the sleep patterns of 19 healthy volunteers.

TDCS is a treatment in which an anode and a cathode electrode placed on the skull are used to apply a steady, low-level current of electricity to the brain.

Bi-frontal anodal stimulation, intended to increase arousal, significantly decreased total sleep time compared to the other two interventions.

Bi-frontal cathodal stimulation, intended to decrease arousal, did not increase total sleep time, possibly because there is a ‘ceiling’ beyond which good sleepers do not sleep longer.

EEG analysis showed that the anodal stimulation did increase arousal, while cathodal stimulation decreased it.

The research increases what is currently known about sleep-wake regulation by showing that total sleep time can be decreased using anodal tDCS. The researchers hope this knowledge can contribute to future treatments for disturbed arousal and sleep.

Ketamine Improves Sleep and Reduces Suicidal Thoughts in Certain Patients

October 16, 2015 · Posted in Current Treatments · Comment 

ketamine may improve sleep

Intravenous ketamine is known for its fast-acting antidepressant effects, which can appear within two hours of an infusion. Researchers are now investigating its use for the reduction of suicidal thoughts. In a study presented in a poster at the 2015 meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, Jennifer L. Vande Voort and colleagues compared the sleep of patients whose suicidal thoughts decreased after a single ketamine infusion (0.5 mg/kg over 40 minutes) to those whose suicidal thoughts remained.

Study participants whose suicidal thoughts diminished after one infusion of ketamine had better sleep quality the following night, with fewer disruptions in sleep than among those who did not have an anti-suicidal response to ketamine. The participants who responded well to ketamine had sleep quality similar to that of healthy controls.

Vande Voort and colleagues hope that these new findings about ketamine’s effect on sleep may provide clues to the biological mechanism behind ketamine’s effect on suicidal ideation.

Depression in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

January 5, 2015 · Posted in Current Treatments, Risk Factors · Comment 

boy with stomach painThe incidence of irritable bowel disease has been increasing in recent years as obesity has increased. At a symposium at the 2014 meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, researcher Eva Szigethy discussed depression in inflammatory bowel disease, which most often involves Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. These conditions are associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and TNF alpha, and these in turn induce the acute phase reactive protein called c-reactive protein (CRP). The interleukins peak in the first 12 hours after an inflammatory challenge and CRP peaks at 48 hours and returns to normal at 120 hours. Il-6 is most closely associated with the somatic symptoms of inflammation, including depression, fatigue, loss of appetite, and decreased sleep, while TNF alpha is associated with non-somatic symptoms, such as irritability.

Szigethy found that in a randomized trial of cognitive behavior therapy versus supportive therapy in children with inflammatory bowel disease, inflammatory activity decreased significantly with cognitive behavioral therapy, and the therapy particularly helped the somatic symptoms of fatigue, sleep disorder, anhedonia (loss of interest in activities once enjoyed), appetite suppression, and mood dysregulation. In contrast, when antidepressants are given to those with inflammatory bowel disease, the drugs are not particularly helpful for these somatic symptoms. Inflammatory bowel diseases are treated with steroids in 21% of patients and with a genetically engineered drug called infliximab in 30%. Adding cognitive behavioral therapy to the regimen decreases CRP and red cell sedimentation rate, an associated measure of inflammation.

The discussant of the symposium on inflammation, Frank Lotrich, described how inflammation alters sleep, and this appeared to interact with genetic risk of illness. For example, those with certain genetic variations (the short SS allele of the serotonin transporter and the val-66-met allele of proBDNF) were most likely to experience sleep disturbance following treatment with interferon gamma, a treatment that fights the virus that causes Hepatitis C, creating inflammation in the process. Interferon gamma causes depression in about one-third of the patients who take it.

Lotrich pointed out that low levels of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with increased irritability and anger, and this is related to the presence of the A allele of TNF alpha. TNF alpha is also closely linked with irritability and anger, suggesting the possible benefits of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to target irritability and anger more selectively. This would be consistent with the data of researcher Mary A. Fristad.

Il-6 is closely associated with the somatic symptoms of depression, particularly poor sleep, which is itself associated with increases in depression. This is consistent with inflammation being a marker of poor response to antidepressants; Lotrich noted that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which help depression, are far more effective against the non-somatic aspects of depression and less effective against low energy, decreased interest, and fatigue. However, extrapolating from the data on inflammatory bowel disease, cognitive behavioral therapy may be most helpful on these somatic symptoms.

 

 

Clarifying the role of melatonin receptors in sleep

September 24, 2014 · Posted in Neurobiology · Comment 

sleeping mouse

The antidepressant agomelatine (which is available in many countries, but not the US) and the anti-insomnia drug ramelteon (Rozerem) both act as agonists at melatonin M1 and M2 receptors. New research is clarifying the role of these receptors in sleep.

In new research from Stefano Comai et al., mice who were genetically altered to have no M1 receptor (MT1KO knockout mice) showed a decrease in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is linked to dreaming, and an increase in slow wave sleep. Mice who were missing the M2 receptor (MT2KO knockout mice) showed a decrease in slow wave sleep. The effects of knocking out a particular gene like M1 or M2 end up being opposite to the effect of stimulating the corresponding receptor.

The researchers concluded that MT1 receptors are responsible for REM sleep (increasing it while decreasing slow wave sleep), and MT2 receptors are responsible for slow wave non-REM sleep.

The new information about these melatonin receptors may explain why oral melatonin supplements can make a patient fall asleep faster, but do not affect the duration of non-REM sleep. The authors suggest that targeting MT2 receptors could lead to longer sleep by increasing slow wave sleep, potentially helping patients with insomnia.

Depression in Youth Is Tough to Treat and Requires Persistence and Creativity

November 27, 2013 · Posted in Course of Illness, Current Treatments, Risk Factors · Comment 

teen boyAt a symposium on ketamine for the treatment of depression in children at the 2013 meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, David Brent, a professor at the University of Pittsburg, gave the opening talk on the fact that as many as 20% of adolescents who are depressed fail to improve, develop chronic illness, and are thus in need of alternatives to traditional treatment. Predictors of non-improvement include substance use, low-level manic symptoms, poor adherence to a medication regimen, low blood levels of antidepressants, family conflict, high levels of inflammation in the body, and importantly, maternal depression. In adolescents insomnia was associated with poor response, but in younger children insomnia was associated with a better response.

Brent suggested using melatonin and sleep-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in youth, but not using trazodone (which is commonly prescribed). Trazodone is converted to a compound called Meta-chlorophenylpiperazine or MCPP, which induces anxiety and dysphoria. MCPP is metabolized by hepatic enzymes 2D6, and fluoxetine and paroxetine inhibit 2D6, so if trazodone is combined with these antidepressants, the patient may get too much MCPP.

Surprisingly and contrary to some data in adults about the positive effects of therapy in those with abuse histories, in the study TORDIA (Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents), if youth with depression had experienced abuse in childhood, they did less well on the combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) compared to SSRIs alone.

Ambien Linked to Emergency Room Visits, Among Other Risks

September 6, 2013 · Posted in Potential Treatments, Risk Factors · Comment 

emergency room

Zolpidem, better known by one of its trade names, Ambien, is widely prescribed for the short-term treatment of insomnia. It can sometimes cause adverse reactions, particularly among women and the elderly. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) has reported that over a recent 5-year period, emergency department visits for adverse reactions to zolpidem increased by almost 220%.

Peter Delaney, Director of SAMSHA’s Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, suggested that doctors should consider alternative strategies for treating insomnia, including improving sleep hygiene by avoiding caffeine, exercising regularly, and sleeping in a quiet, dark room. He also suggested that doctors should be aware of what other medications a patient is taking, and ideally all of a patient’s prescriptions should be collected from the same pharmacy, so the pharmacist can act as a second pair of eyes identifying possible drug interactions.

Women and men metabolize zolpidem differently, and according to Sam Fleishman of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, many women can still be impaired by the drug 8 hours after taking it. In 2013, after reports of adverse reactions to zolpidem increased, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) required manufacturers of drugs containing zolpidem to reduce the recommended dose for women by half, from 10 mg to 5 mg, or 12.5 mg to 6.25 mg for the extended-release version. The FDA also suggested halving the dosage prescribed to the elderly, and reducing the recommended dose for men.

Some of the adverse reactions to drugs containing zolpidem include daytime drowsiness, dizziness, hallucinations, sleepwalking, and even “sleep driving.” When combined with antianxiety medications, narcotic pain relievers, or alcohol, zolpidem’s sedative effects can be enhanced to dangerous levels.

Proven Treatments for Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

July 12, 2013 · Posted in Current Treatments · Comment 

women running together

At the 2012 meeting of the Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum (CINP), a symposium was held to discuss fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome, two illnesses that remain mysterious.

Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is more common in women than in men and is characterized by aching all over, decreased sleep, stiffness upon waking, and most prominently, being tired all day, as well as a host of other symptoms including headache, dizziness, and gastrointestinal upset. Researcher Siegried Kasper suggested that treating fibromyalgia requires more than just medication. His approach is known as MESS, which stands for medication, exercise, sleep management, and stress management.

Medications to treat the illness include milnacipran (not available in the US), duloxetine (Cymbalta, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor or SNRI), or pregabalin (Lyrica), and if tolerated, low doses of the tricyclic amitriptyline (Elavil).

According to Kasper, SSRIs and anti-inflammatory drugs don’t work, and benzodiazepines decrease the deepest phase of sleep (stage 4) and can exacerbate the syndrome.

Recommended exercise is moderate, graded (to a pulse of about 120, or at a level where the patient can still talk, but can’t sing), and should be done in the early morning rather than the late afternoon where it might interfere with sleep.

Good sleep hygiene is recommended, such as keeping the same sleep schedule every day and abstaining from caffeine (even in the morning).

Working on developing active coping strategies for stressors that are likely to occur is a good idea. Mindfulness and other meditative techniques may also be helpful. Joining a support group (that encourages exercise rather than discouraging it) was also recommended.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

At the CINP meeting researcher Simon Wessely discussed chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), which has many overlaps with fibromyalgia. He reported that careful controlled study of more than 15,000 individuals has not indicated that the illness is associated with a viral infection. Just as many people with and without chronic fatigue syndrome were found to be infected with a virus.

However, like the myth that vaccines cause autism, the myth that chronic fatigue is associated with a virus remains popular despite the lack of evidence. A large randomized study validated Wessely’s treatment techniques, but he has continued to be vilified for the position that the illness is not virally based. The study showed that patients who participated in cognitive behavior therapy and graded exercise improved more than those who received conventional medical management.

Wessely thought the most important cognitive change to make was accepting that exercise is not harmful for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, and is in fact helpful and therapeutic. Many older treatment approaches had advocated rest, rest, and more rest, or even “intensive rest.” However, Wessely indicated that this would be counter-productive, as the patient would lose muscle mass and cardiovascular conditioning, and would become even more tired and chronically fatigued.

Activity Monitoring Discriminates Between BP Kids and ADHD Kids

October 24, 2011 · Posted in Diagnosis · Comment 

At the 57th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) in October 2010, Gianni Faedda of the Lucio Bini Mood Disorders Center reported that monitoring of activity, sleep, and circadian-rhythm disturbances can be used to distinguish children with a diagnosis of bipolar illness (who showed more hyperactivity and less sleep), from children with ADHD and control children without illness.

Girl sleeping

Track Your Moods with Life Charting

January 14, 2011 · Posted in Resources · Comment 

If you have unipolar depression or bipolar disorder and are having trouble stabilizing your mood, we recommend nightly charting of mood, medications and side effects on the easy-to-use Monthly Mood Chart Personal Calendar (pictured below) or the National Institute of Mental Health Life Chart (NIMH-LCM), both of which are available for download.

Sample Mood Chart

Sample Mood Chart

Click on the Life Charts tab above to download the personal calendar, which includes space for rating mood, functioning, hours of sleep, life events, side effects, and other symptoms such as anxiety.  Then bring the chart to each visit with your physician to help in the assessment of treatments.

Life charting can help determine which medications are working partially and need to be augmented further, and which need to be eliminated because of side effects.  Since there are now many potential treatments for depression and bipolar disorder (some FDA-approved and some not), a careful assessment of how well each new treatment works for a particular patient is essential to finding the optimal treatment regimen.

Treating Generalized Anxiety Disorder

June 17, 2010 · Posted in Current Treatments · Comment 

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent illness often associated with considerable discomfort and dysfunction. It often co-occurs with bipolar disorder. Traditional treatments of the primary syndrome (occurring in the absence of bipolar disorder) involve serotonin-selective antidepressants and serotonin-noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors such as venlafaxine (Effexor) or duloxitine (Cymbalta). While these are often useful and lead to considerable improvement, they often do not lead to full remission of somatic or accompanying symptoms of insomnia.

Alternative treatment possibilities include the anticonvulsant pregabalin (Lyrica), which has been found effective in four placebo-controlled studies in GAD. A poster presentation by Joshi et al. at the American Psychiatric Association meeting in San Francisco in May 2009 also reported that pregabalin was more effective in reducing sleep disturbance than venlafaxine. Pregabaline is FDA-approved for seizures and fibromyalgia, but not for GAD or pain syndromes. Another treatment possibility is quetiapine (Seroquel), where not only have there been positive efficacy in placebo-controlled studies of patients with GAD, but the patients also experienced improvement in sleep.
Read more