Antioxidant NAC Improves Symptoms of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder
N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant available without a prescription in health food stores, has shown remarkable effectiveness when added to regular treatments for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and the substance abuse that often accompanies these illnesses.
A 2008 article by Michael Berk and colleagues in the journal Biological Psychiatry reported that compared to placebo, 2 grams/day of NAC reduced both positive symptoms of schizophrenia (hallucinations, delusions) and negative symptoms (social withdrawal, difficulty planning and problem-solving). A 2013 study by Mehdi Farokhnia found that 2 grams/day of NAC improved negative symptoms in 42 patients with schizophrenia. Two other studies found that NAC improved deficits in auditory sensory processing in people with schizophrenia.
NAC also improves symptoms of bipolar disorder. A 2008 study by Berk and a 2011 study by Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães showed that NAC improved bipolar depression, and a small 2013 study by Magalhães showed that it improved mania in 15 patients. After 24 weeks, 60% of those who took NAC were in remission, compared to 15% of those taking placebo.
NAC is also effective at reducing habitual behaviors such as substance abuse, which is common in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Studies have shown that NAC can reduce patients’ use of marijuana, cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. It is relatively safe with minimal side effects, and fights oxidative stress, which is also common in severe mental illness.
NAC comes in 500mg or 600mg capsules. Dosing typically begins with one capsule twice a day for a week, followed by two tablets twice a day thereafter. As with any recommendations in the BNN, these should not be acted on without guidance from a treating physician.