Different Types of Trauma Affect Brain Volume Differently

October 16, 2017 · Posted in Neurobiology · Comment 

brain volume

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with decreased volume of gray matter in the cortex. Research by Linghui Meng and colleagues has revealed that the specific types of trauma that precede PTSD affect gray matter volume differently.

At the 2016 meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Meng reported that PTSD from accidents, natural disasters, and combat led to different patterns of gray matter loss. PTSD from accidents was associated with gray matter reductions in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). PTSD from natural disasters was linked to gray matter reductions in the mPFC and ACC, plus the amygdala and left hippocampus. PTSD from combat reduced gray matter volume in the left striatum, the left insula, and the left middle temporal gyrus.

Meng and colleagues also found that severity of PTSD was linked to the severity of gray matter reductions in the bilateral ACC and the mPFC.

In a 2016 article in the journal Scientific Reports, Meng and colleagues reported that single-incident traumas were associated with gray matter loss in the bilateral mPFC, the ACC, insula, striatum, left hippocampus, and the amygdala, while prolonged or recurrent traumas were linked to gray matter loss in the left insula, striatum, amygdala, and middle temporal gyrus.

Antibiotic Doxycycline May Block PTSD Symptoms

October 10, 2017 · Posted in Potential Treatments · Comment 

doxycycline capsulesA 2017 proof-of-concept study suggests that the antibiotic doxycycline can block the formation of negative thoughts and fear memories, perhaps offering a new way to treat or prevent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

In the study by Dominik R. Bach in the journal Molecular Psychiatry, healthy adults who received doxycycline had a lower fear response to fearful stimuli compared to healthy adults who received a placebo. The 76 participants received either doxycycline or placebo and then were taught to associate a color with an electric shock. Later, they were exposed to the color accompanied by a loud sound (but no shock), and their startle response was measured by tracking eye blinks, an instinctive response to sudden threats. Bach and colleagues found that the fear response was 60% lower in those participants who received doxycycline, suggesting that the antibiotic disrupted the fear memory linking the color to a threat.

The theory is based on evidence that doxycycline can inhibit metalloproteinase enzymes, which are involved in memory formation.

While in the study doxycycline was delivered before the fearful event occurred, there is hope that the antibiotic could also do some good after the fact. There is growing evidence that actively recalling a traumatic event can open a ‘memory reconsolidation window’ during which emotions associated with that event are open to change. Bach and colleagues hope to follow up with studies involving this reconsolidation window.

Another line of research is exploring how pain medications may reduce the emotional power of traumatic memories, because intense pain strengthens memory consolidation.

Traumatic Events in Childhood Linked to Shorter Telomeres

September 12, 2017 · Posted in Risk Factors · Comment 

verbal abuse of a child

Telomeres are bits of DNA at the end of chromosomes that protect the DNA as it replicates. Shorter telomeres have been linked to aging and increases in multiple types of medical and psychiatric disorders. A 2016 article in PNAS, the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, reported that cumulative life adversity and particularly stressful or traumatic events in childhood, predict shorter telomere length.

The study by Eli Puterman and colleagues included 4,590 individuals from the US Health and Retirement Study who reported stressful events that had experienced. A single experience of adversity was not linked to short telomeres, but lifetime cumulative adversity predicted 6% greater odds of having shorter telomeres. This result was mainly explained by adversity that occurred in childhood. Each stressful or traumatic event in childhood increased the odds of short telomeres by 11%. These were mostly social or traumatic experiences rather than financial stresses.

Child Abuse Linked to Adolescent Obesity

December 7, 2016 · Posted in Risk Factors · Comment 

child abuse linked to adolescent obesityNew research clarifies how trauma in early life can lead to obesity in adolescence. In a study of 160 young people between the ages of 9 and 15, researcher Janitza Montalvo-Ortiz and colleagues identified seven sites in the genome where DNA methylation predicted body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The researchers also collected information on family traumas that occurred during the participants’ childhoods and found that DNA methylation and family trauma such as child abuse interacted to predict BMI.

Epigenetics describes the ways life experiences can change how easily DNA is turned on or off. While the genes coded by DNA sequences one inherits from one’s parents never change, the structure of DNA can change. DNA methylation is one type of epigenetic change that refers to the addition of methyl groups to promoter regions of DNA in response to life events.

In this research, which was presented at the 2016 meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, Montalvo-Ortiz and colleagues found that the site of DNA methylation with the strongest link to BMI in adolescence was a gene called MAP2K3. This gene had previously been linked to obesity, but this is the first time DNA methylation at this site has been linked to both obesity and childhood trauma. Other relevant gene sites where DNA methylation occurred include ANKRD2, CPXM2, NUBPL, and RFK.

Intranasal Oxytocin Soon After a Trauma May Prevent Worsening PTSD

December 1, 2016 · Posted in Potential Treatments · Comment 

intranasal oxytocin may prevent worsening PTSD

Oxytocin, a hormone that promotes emotional bonding, also benefits people having trouble dealing with stress. A new study suggests that giving oxytocin for a week shortly following a traumatic experience reduces the risk that the recipient will develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

In the study by researcher Mirjam van Zuiden and colleagues, people who visited an emergency room following some kind of trauma were randomized to receive either a placebo nasal spray or intranasal oxytocin twice daily for 7.5 days beginning within 12 days after the trauma. The dosage was 40 IU twice daily.

For those participants with severe PTSD symptoms at baseline, repeated oxytocin administration prevented worsening PTSD. The research was presented at the 2016 meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry.

Mice Who Witness Another Being Attacked Show Depression-Like Behaviors

June 27, 2016 · Posted in Risk Factors · Comment 

mouse witnessing traumatic eventsStress is a risk factor for depression and other mental health disorders. Researchers are currently working to clarify how stress leads to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder, and why trauma early in life has lasting consequences.

Two recent studies in mice examined whether just witnessing a stressful event leads to depression-like behaviors. In one, adult female mice watched a male mouse as it was repeatedly attacked by a larger mouse. After ten days of this, the female mice were socially withdrawn, had lost interest in drinking sucrose, and gave up more easily during a physical challenge. They also lost weight and showed higher levels of the stress hormone corticosterone in their blood. The researchers, led by Sergio Iniguez, believe their study clarifies how witnessing traumatic events can lead to stress-induced mood disorders.

In the other study, by Carlos Bolanos-Guzman, adolescent male mice witnessed another mouse being attacked. Both the mice that went through the physical stress of being attacked and the mice that went through the emotional stress of watching the attacks occur showed similar depressive behaviors to the mice in the previous study—social withdrawal, loss of interest in sucrose, decreased food intake and exploration of the environment, and decreased motivation in physical challenges. These behaviors persisted into adulthood. Both groups of mice also had increased levels of corticosterone and reduced expression of a particular protein in the ventral tegmental area, a part of the brain linked to stress response. Bolanos-Guzman suggests that both physical and emotional stress have lifelong consequences in mice.

The studies were presented at a scientific meeting in December.

Link Between Childhood Trauma and Difficult Course of Bipolar Disorder Clarified

November 9, 2015 · Posted in Genetics, Risk Factors · Comment 

Trauma in childhood linked to course of bipolar disorder

A collaboration between Norwegian and French researchers led by Bruno Etain has clarified the pathway by which childhood trauma is linked to worse outcomes among people with bipolar disorder. The researchers, who presented their work in a poster at the 2015 meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, replicated earlier findings by this editor (Robert Post) that patients who experienced trauma as a child had a more adverse course of bipolar disorder. Etain and colleagues found a link between childhood trauma and an earlier age of onset of bipolar disorder, rapid cycling, suicide attempts, and cannabis misuse.

The researchers identified more than 550 patients with bipolar disorder, who answered questionnaires about their history of bipolar disorder and childhood trauma. Their DNA was also analyzed, and the researchers found that the effect of childhood trauma on age of onset was mediated by the presence of common genetic variants in proteins related to stress (the serotonin transporter) and immune function (Toll-like receptors). They also found that the traits of mood lability (or moodiness) and impulsivity mediated the effects of trauma on clinical outcomes.

The lasting epigenetic effects of child maltreatment and adversity noted in the above abstract are consistent with a large literature showing more epigenetic effects in these individuals than in controls. While genetics are important, the impact of the environment is also substantial.

Young Rats That Witness Maternal Abuse Show Depression-Like Behavior in Adulthood

March 5, 2015 · Posted in Risk Factors · Comment 

rat mother and baby

Rodents that are subjected to social defeat (being overpowered by a bigger, more aggressive animal) develop a syndrome that resembles human depression—they avoid social interaction, lose interest in sucrose, and do less exploring of new places or other animals. A recent finding showed that even witnessing the social defeat of a peer was enough to bring about the depressive behaviors. The same researchers, led by Samina Salim, recently found that young rats (aged 21–27 days) that witnessed their mother go through the trauma of social defeat showed depression-like behavior themselves as adults (at age 60 days).

The rats saw their mothers defeated by the larger rat every day for seven days. As adults, those who witnessed this abuse exhibited depression-like behavior compared to rats of the same age and gender that had not witnessed abuse. The depressive rats gave up more quickly on a test of forced swimming. Male rats showed great depression-like behavior than female rats.

It has been estimated by the American Psychological Association that 15.5 million children in the US witness physical or emotional abuse of a parent (usually their mother). Children who witness domestic violence often show symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This rodent research may lead to a better understanding of the consequences of witnessing trauma in childhood, and potential treatments that could help.

Editor’s Note: These data show that rats have something like empathy, and that the psychological aspects of stress (including verbal abuse in humans and witnessing another’s abuse in rodents) may have profound and lasting consequences on behavior.

Acute Steroid Injection May Ward Off PTSD

September 10, 2014 · Posted in Potential Treatments · Comment 

woman after a trauma

Low cortisol after a trauma is a risk factor for developing chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Researcher Joseph Zohar studied has been researching the effects of steroids on the development of PTSD and presented some findings at the 2014 meeting of the International College of Neuropsychopharmacology.

Twenty-five patients who experienced a traumatic event and showed acute stress symptoms were given either a single high-dose injection of hydrocortisone (100–140 mg) or a placebo within six hours of the trauma. Follow-up evaluation took place after two weeks, one month, and three months. Those who received this single high dose of hydrocortisone had lowered stress symptoms and less subsequent PTSD compared to those who received placebo.

A Re-Kindling Process Produces Late-Onset PTSD

July 7, 2014 · Posted in Risk Factors · Comment 

post traumatic stress disorder

Not everyone who experiences trauma develops post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) immediately. Researchers are discovering that some people go on to develop symptoms like flashbacks or intrusive thoughts, anxiety, and withdrawal, sometimes after long periods of being asymptomatic. Two studies provide hints about the mechanism of this late-onset (or delayed-type) PTSD.

In an article by Danny Horesh et al. published in the journal Psychiatry Research in 2013, a reported 16.5% of 675 Israeli veterans of the 1982 conflict with Lebanon developed late-onset PTSD after a completely non-symptomatic period. The number of deployments soldiers were sent on and the number of terror incidents they experienced within Israel after the war were correlates of the late-onset PTSD, while continuous post-war employment was a protective factor reducing late-onset PTSD.

In a study of 260 older adults (above age 60) who survived the destruction around Galveston Bay, Texas by Hurricane Ike in 2008, Robert H. Pietrzak et al. reported in the Journal of Psychiatry Research in 2013 that 5.3% developed late-onset PTSD. In this case as well, a greater number of subsequent traumatic and stressful life events (and in particular financial difficulties) was associated with late onset of PTSD. The majority of participants in Pietrzak’s study (78.7 %) had no to few PTSD symptoms, while 16.0% had chronic PTSD symptoms from the outset persisting through assessments at three months and 15 months.

Editor’s Note: These two studies reveal that upon prospective follow-up, a small but substantial group of patients (5–16%) develop a late-onset type of PTSD. Acute onset PTSD has been closely linked to new trauma in adulthood, especially following the occurrence of previous (childhood) traumas. The late-occurring variety of PTSD seems to appear after an incubation period, and appears to be closely associated with the occurrence of new traumatic events during the well interval. These new events may result in a kindling-like effect, where repetition of subthreshold stimuli come to evoke a full-blown episode. PTSD appearing after repeated traumatic experiences may operate in a similar fashion to seizures that gradually emerge following repeated electrical stimulation of the amygdala (i.e. amygdala kindling). Read more

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