One-third of people who have strokes face depression afterward. New research is looking to expand the safe options for the treatment of depression following strokes. At the 2015 meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, researchers led by Leandro Valiengo presented their successful randomized, sham-controlled double-blind study of transcranial direct current stimulation for post-stroke depression. Forty-eight people who had depression following a stroke were randomized to receive either a sham procedure or tDCS in twelve 30-minute sessions over a period of six weeks. After the six weeks, those who received tDCS had fewer symptoms of depression, more remission, and better response. There were no serious side effects.
TDCS is very low-level electrical current that has a positive (anode) or negative (cathode) electrode. Anodal stimulation of the cortex is usually associated with positive effects on mood and cognition. TDCS sessions in this study consisted of 2-mA anodal left/cathodal right dorsolateral prefrontal stimulation.
Editor’s Note: Placebo-controlled studies have repeatedly indicated that patients who have a stroke show better neurological and psychiatric response afterward when they are given an selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant, whether or not they have depression or a prior history of depression. If a neurologist does not suggest treatment with an SSRI after a stroke, ask why not. Since antidepressants increase brain levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and increase neurogenesis, they could help with post-stroke recovery.
The hypoglycemic drug pioglitazone is typically used to treat diabetes, but a 2015 study by A. Zeinoddini and colleagues shows that it may improve depressive symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder who do not have type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome (characterized by high weight, cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure).
Forty-four patients with bipolar disorder and a major depressive episode were randomized to receive either 30 mg/day of pioglitazone or placebo as an adjunctive treatment to lithium. Depressive symptoms were lower in the pioglitazone group at weeks 2, 4, and 6 of the six-week study.
No serious side effect occurred in the study, but pioglitazone use is associated with some risks in those using it for diabetes treatment. People taking pioglitazone for longer than a year have shown increased rates of bladder cancer. There is an increased risk of fractures of the upper arms, hands, and feet in female patients. The drug lowers blood sugar, but not enough to be a problem in people not taking other drugs that lower blood sugar. Pioglitazone can also cause fluid retention, worsening congestive heart failure. It can also cause mild weight gain, anemia, and sinus problems.
Borderline personality disorder is characterized by mood instability, cognitive symptoms, impulsive or risky behavior, and disturbed interpersonal relationships. There are no Federal Drug Administration–approved treatments, but several small open studies of the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine (trade name Seroquel) have been promising. Rapid mood shifts in borderline personality disorder resemble to some extent those in bipolar disorder, for which quetiapine is an approved treatment. The drug may also curb impulsivity and self-harm. A blind, placebo-controlled study by Donald W. Black and colleagues published in the American Journal of Psychiatry in 2014 compared a low dose of quetiapine (150mg/day) with a moderate dose (300mg/day) and with placebo for the treatment of borderline personality disorder. The low dose of quetiapine led to significant improvement over the other doses, particularly reducing verbal and physical aggression.
The study included 95 participants randomized to each of the three treatment groups. All met DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder, and each participant received eight weeks of active treatment. (One week of 50mg/day followed by seven weeks of 150md/day for the low dose group, and one week of 50mg/day followed by 3 weeks of 150mg/day and 4 weeks of 300mg/day for the moderate dose group.)
Eighty-eight percent of the participants experienced an adverse event during the study, including sedation, dry mouth, increased heart rate, or decrease in blood pressure. None were serious. Sedation was most common in the group receiving moderate doses of quetiapine.
All groups improved over the 8-week study, particularly during weeks 2–6. Response rates of participants who completed the study were 82% for the low dose group, 74% for the moderate dose group, and 48% for placebo. (Large benefits from placebo are common in studies of borderline personality.) Improvement in symptoms was greatest in the low dose quetiapine group, significantly higher than the moderate dose quetiapine group. Time to improvement was shorter on quetiapine than on placebo.
Ketamine, an anesthetic sometimes used intravenously in the treatment of depression, can bring about rapid onset of antidepressant effects. A new meta-analysis by researcher Michael Bloch and colleagues presented at a recent conference showed that ketamine’s maximum antidepressant effects occur within one day of administration, and its effects remain significant (compared to control conditions) one week following infusion. Ketamine’s effects were diminished in patients taking other medications. There was a trend for better response in patients with bipolar disorder than with unipolar disorder.
Bloch and colleagues analyzed eight earlier studies including a total of 180 participants. In each study, ketamine had been compared to a control condition, either an infusion of saline solution or of midazolam, which mimics ketamine’s sensory effects but does not have antidepressant effects. The researchers are calling for more meta-analyses of ketamine studies to determine which patients respond best to ketamine and how to sustain ketamine’s effects.
Editor’s Note: In another poster presented at the same conference, James Murrough reported that patients with slower processing speed responded best to ketamine. Other findings have shown that those with a history of alcohol abuse and a common genetic variant of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the val-66-val allele of proBDNF, are more likely to respond to ketamine.
Prazosin, an alpha-1 adrenoreceptor antagonist, has been found to be effective at reducing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including nightmares. Researchers led by Murray Raskind hypothesized that there may be a link between blood pressure and response to prazosin, since resting blood pressure can be used to measure alpha-1 adrenoreceptor responsiveness. In a study of active duty combat soldiers with PTSD, higher resting blood pressure and smaller drop in blood pressure when going from lying down to standing up predicted a better response to prazosin.
The researchers believe that blood pressure can be used to estimate the central nervous systems’s responsiveness to norepinephrine, which prazosin blocks. In patients with PTSD who received placebo instead of prazosin, blood pressure did not predict improvement. Raskind and colleagues hope to be better able to predict response to prazosin in PTSD by measuring patients’ baseline blood pressure.
In a new study of patients with major depressive disorder who did not improve after eight weeks of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant escitalopram, the addition of the atypical antipsychotic ziprasidone improved their depression more than did placebo. Patients took the combination of escitalopram (20mg/day on average) and ziprasidone twice a day at doses of 20–80 mg.
This was the first randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial of ziprasidone as an adjunct treatment for unipolar depression. While ziprasidone was more efficacious than placebo, discontinuation of the study due to intolerance was higher among the patients who received ziprasidone.
Editor’s Note: Two atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine and aripiprazole) have been approved by the Federal Drug Administration for augmentation of antidepressants in unipolar depression. Now there have also been placebo-controlled positive trials of two others (ziprasidone and cariprazine).
These findings are of particular interest as the studies of ziprasidone monotherapy in bipolar depression not only failed, but response to ziprasidone and placebo was virtually identical (and negligible).
In an eight-week study of the drug cariprazine for bipolar depression by Joe Calabrese and colleagues, patients who received 1.5mg/day doses of the drug showed more improvement in their illness and higher remission rates after six weeks than patients who received placebo. Side effects were rare, with mild or moderate akithisia (restless legs) being most common. Cariprazine is a dopamine D3 and D2 receptor partial agonist with preferential binding to D3 receptors.
A recent study by Robert Smith and colleagues studied the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with schizophrenia. TDCS is very low level current that has a positive (anode) or negative (cathode) electrode. Anodal stimulation of the cortex is usually associated with positive effects on mood and cognition. Patients received either five sessions of active tDCS for 20 minutes (at 2 milli Amps) or a sham stimulation for the same period. Then, one day after the final session, the patients were measured on a variety of scales for cognition and illness. Patients who received the active tDCS showed more improvements in working memory and attention than patients who received the sham treatment.
There was no difference in the two groups’ schizophrenic symptoms, including hallucinations. Smith and colleagues suggest that the improvements in cognition may result from changes to brain connectivity networks, since abnormalities in these networks have been identified in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Replications of this type of study are needed to clarify the effect of tDCS on cognition in schizophrenia, but given the safety and convenience of the procedure, the findings are promising.
In studies of rodents, running on a wheel reduces cocaine self-administration. A recent study by Richard de la Garza and colleagues investigated whether running or walking on a treadmill can reduce cocaine cravings and use in humans. In the study of 24 participants who had been using cocaine an average of 19.7 years, participants were randomized to run, walk, or sit for 30 minutes three times per week for four consecutive weeks. After exercising, the participants reported having less craving for cocaine. Fitness measures such as body weight and resting heart rate improved in both walkers and runners. While not statistically significant, by the end of the study there was a trend indicating that exercise improved abstinence from cocaine and decreased daily craving for cocaine.
Editor’s Note: Exercise Increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurogenesis. In rodents, cocaine is associated with decreases in BDNF in the frontal cortex, and injecting BDNF there decreases cocaine seeking. Whether this BDNF effect or the general effects of exercise on mood and conditioning account for these positive cocaine effects remains to be ascertained.
Children who have a parent with bipolar disorder are at risk for bipolar illness, but it may first present as depression. Treating these children with antidepressants has the risk of bringing on manic episodes. Researchers are looking for treatment options for youth at risk for bipolar disorder.
Robert McNamara and colleagues found that 12 weeks of omega-3 fatty acids (2,100 mg/day) significantly improved response rates in medication-free youth ages 9–20 years compared to placebo (64% versus 36%). Omega-3 fatty acids but not placebo also reduced the activation of limbic structures in the brain (the left parahippocampal gyrus) in response to emotional stimuli.
Editor’s Note: These data add to the literature on the positive effects of 1–2 grams of omega-3 fatty acids in depression. Given the safety of omega-3 fatty acids and the ambiguous effects of antidepressants in bipolar depression, omega-3 fatty acids would appear to a good alternative, especially since the FDA-approved atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine and lurasidone) are not approved for bipolar depression in people under age 18.