Chronic Fatigue, Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Long COVID Are Strongly Predicted by Neuroimmune and Neuro- Oxidative Pathways Which Are Caused by the Inflammation during Acute Infection

HK Al-Hakeim et al in Michael Maes’ lab report in J. Clinical Medicine (2023) on very important findings about immune and oxidative changes in long COVID with “physio- somatic (chronic fatigue syndrome and somatic symptoms) and affective (depression and anxiety) symptoms. The severity of the long COVID physio-affective phenome is largely predicted by increased peak body temperature (BT) and lowered oxygen saturation (SpO2) during the acute infectious phase…..  We recruited 86 patients with long COVID (3–4 months after the acute phase) and 39 healthy controls and assessed serum C-reactive protein (CRP), caspase 1, interleukin (IL) 1?, IL-18, IL-10, myeloperoxidase (MPO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and calcium (Ca), as well as peak BT and SpO2 during the acute phase. Results: Cluster analysis revealed that a significant part (34.9%) of long COVID patients (n = 30) show a highly elevated NT (neurotoxicity) index as computed based on IL-1?, IL-18, caspase 1, CRP, MPO, and AOPPs. Partial least squares analysis showed that 61.6% of the variance in the physio-affective phenome of long COVID could be explained by the NT index, lowered Ca, and peak BT/SpO2 in the acute phase and prior vaccinations with AstraZeneca or Pfizer. The most important predictors of the physio-affective phenome are Ca, CRP, IL-1?, AOPPs, and MPO. Conclusion: The infection–immune–inflammatory core of acute COVID-19 strongly predicts the development of physio-affective symptoms 3–4 months later, and these effects are partly mediated by neuro-immune and neuro-oxidative pathways.”

Editors Note:  These finding are important as they may lead to new treatment interventions.  BNN readers are reminded of a previous BNN article by investigators from Yale (written by by Isabella Backman on Dec. 13, 2022) that in a new case study, they found that guanfacine plus N-acetylcysteine (which is an anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and glutathione precursor) “mitigated and sometimes eliminated the cognitive impairment known as “brain fog” that often accompanies long COVID.

Potential Treatment for “Brain Fog” in Long COVID Patients: Guanfacine plus NAC

As announced in Yale on December 13, 2022 by Isabella Backman “A new Yale case study finds that two medications used for treating traumatic brain injuries, when taken together, can mitigate and sometimes eliminate the cognitive impairments known as “brain fog,” common among people with persistent COVID-19 symptoms….Individuals with long COVID, sometimes referred to as “long-haulers,” experience symptoms that may persist for weeks, months, or even years after their acute viral infection. While symptoms vary widely, a common complaint among patients is “brain fog”—a colloquial term for significant, persistent cognitive deficits, with consistent impairment of executive functioning and working memory. Long-haulers may experience a lack of mental clarity, poor focus and concentration, memory problems, difficulty with multi-tasking, and more. Brain fog can be debilitating, but there currently are no treatment options that are approved for the condition.