Temper Dysregulation Disorder in the DSM-5?

December 2, 2011 · Posted in Diagnosis · Comment 

Temper Dysregulation Disorder

David Axelson from Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic gave a plenary talk on temper dysregulation disorder (TDD) with dysphoria at the 2011 Pediatric Bipolar Disorder Conference, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts in March.  Researchers in the field have been discussing whether a diagnosis of TDD or severe mood dysregulation (SMD), a name Ellen Liebenluft of the National Institute of Mental Health has used to describe a similar behavior pattern, is necessary and should be included in the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).

The rationale for including a TDD or SMD diagnosis was the upsurge in the diagnosis of bipolar disorder among children.  Researchers like Liebenluft believed that bipolar disorder was being over-diagnosed in children, and that some children could instead be classified as having a disorder that was limited to chronic irritability.  Temper dysregulation disorder is what researchers eventually settled on.  Post-hoc analysis of longitudinal epidemiological studies suggested that some chronic irritability experienced by children and adolescents developed into depressive and anxiety disorders rather than bipolar disorder.

However, as described in the epidemiological data of Merikangas et al. (which we will post later this week) and others, the frequency of youth diagnoses of bipolar disorder are not out of proportion with the number of diagnoses in adults. Now that it does not seem likely that bipolar disorder is being over-diagnosed among children, there is less rationale for the new diagnosis categories.  In addition, it seems that TDD may not even capture a specific set of behaviors or symptoms. Read more

Almost 40% of Children with Bipolar Disorder May Not Receive Necessary Treatment

Depressed GirlAn article by Geller et al. in Bipolar Disorders last year illustrates the crisis in the treatment of childhood-onset bipolar illness in the US.  The article indicates that almost 40% of the children with a credible diagnosis of bipolar disorder in this study never received anything near the appropriate treatment for their illness.

It is unfortunate when children fail to receive appropriate treatment because of ambiguity about a diagnosis, but it is even more frustrating when one of the world’s experts makes a diagnosis, and a child still fails to receive treatment based on consensus guidelines.

Over 8 years of follow-up treatment in their communities, these very ill children not only did not receive helpful drugs such as atypical antipsychotics or mood stabilizers, but they often received treatments that can be counterproductive, such as antidepressants or psychomotor stimulants.  Those children who did receive appropriate treatment with lithium fared better and recovered significantly earlier than the others. Read more

Consistent Deficits In Facial Emotion Recognition Found in Non-Ill Children of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

November 2, 2010 · Posted in Diagnosis, Risk Factors · Comment 

facial expressions

Children with bipolar parents may have difficulty identifying the emotions they see on another person’s face.  Aditya Sharma of Newcastle University presented a poster at the Pediatric Bipolar Conference in Cambridge, Massachusetts in March, which indicated that children without bipolar disorder but at risk because a parent has the illness showed deficits in facial emotion recognition. Similar results were reported by Brotman et al. in the American Journal of Psychiatry in 2008. Since children of bipolar parents are at increased risk of developing the disease, this deficit in labeling facial emotion may be a marker of early bipolar disorder or a risk factor for its onset.

Editor’s Note: These types of deficits in facial emotion recognition have been consistently observed in adults and children diagnosed with bipolar disorder, so assessing whether children can successfully identify others’ facial emotions could become part of the assessment of risk for bipolar disorder. This deficit could also be targeted for psychosocial intervention and rehabilitative training to enhance emotion recognition skills. Such an approach could improve interpersonal communication and lessen hypersensitive responses to perceived emotional threats and negative emotional experiences.

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